Please cite your sources

A fair amount of information is given freely on this web site, at considerable expenditure of financial and other resources. Examples include transcripts of historic news articles, and journal articles published by Dr. Ludwig. This information may be used, subject to the copyright notice and subject also to the following conditions:

Fair use, which means that you may use a limited number of articles, but only for a non-commercial project. The word limited means that you are not allowed to lift all or a significant portion of the newspaper transcripts, for example, and then post them to your site, whether your site is for or not for profit.

Non-commercial use, which should be self explanatory and applies to any medium. This restriction also applies to websites which feature advertising banners or click buttons linking to commercial sites of any kind whatsoever. Anyone who posts a freely given transcript or academic journal article onto a website that features this kind of advertising is, in effect, making money from something that was given freely. If in doubt, please use the contact page to request permission from the Editor.

☛ Giving credit where it is due, or acknowledgement of another person's work by providing correct attribution in your source citations or bibliography is a generally accepted indicator of responsible and ethical scholarship.

☛ Full source citations, the provision of which is a hallmark of academic rigour and collegial courtesy. As a general guideline, include the following information in the description of the source:

  • the name of the document;
  • the date that the document was issued, and where it was published;
  • the name of the publisher;
  • any reference number or unique identifier printed on the document, for example, volume number and/or issue number;
  • the date that you obtained a copy or transcript of the document;
  • the name of the author, transcriber, indexer, or editor, and the name of the book or web site or other medium in which the author, &c. published the work.

For example, the following would be an apppropriate source note or bibliographical reference for a scientific article written by Dr. Ludwig:

   Ludwig, James P., Stephen I. Apfelbaum, and John P. Giesy. "Ecotoxicological Effects in Ecosystems: Wildlife Indicators of Environmental Contamination." Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Watershed Development on Aquatic Ecosystems and Water Quality (pp. 241-9). National Symposium held at the Westin Hotel, Chicago (19–21 March, 1996).

The following would be an appropriate source note for a historic newspaper transcript:

   The Armagh Guardian, 7 January 1845. Published by John Thompson at Armagh, county Armagh. Transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2002–06, and published to Quercus Arborealis, online at (accessed 2016-09-02).

Giving credit to the author is not the same as having permission to reproduce material from this website. Use the Contact form to forward requests to the Editor for permission to use information from this web site.

Related link: Copyright notice

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